Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada is in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million miles). Various indigenous peoples inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization.

The world's longest unprotected border is between Canada and the United States. It is known as the International Boundary. It is 5,525 miles long, including 1,538 miles between Canada and Alaska. Canada has the longest coastline of any country in the world at 243,977 kilometres - 151,600 miles.

Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Ottawa is the second coldest capital in the world after Moscow.

Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield; 42 percent of the land acreage is covered by forests, which is approximately eight percent of the world's forested land, mostly of spruce, poplar, and pine. Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes, 563 of which are greater than 100 km2 (39 miles), which is more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water. There are fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies, the Coast Mountains, and the Arctic Cordillera.

Canada is geologically active, having several earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes. The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing an estimated 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia.

Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate.

In non-coastal regions, snow can cover the ground for nearly six months each year. In parts of the north snow can be yearlong. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winters.

Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with a monarch and a prime minister serving as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. Canada has among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education.

Canada is described as a full democracy, with a tradition of liberalism, and an egalitarian, moderate political ideology. Social justice has been a distinguishing element of Canada's political culture. Peace, order, and good government, alongside an implied bill of rights are founding principles of the Canadian government.

Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.

As of 2018, Canada has produced fourteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine. The country was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists. It is headquarters for several global technology firms. Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to approximately 94 percent of its 2014 population.

Canada is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, with extensive immigration from numerous countries. In modern day times it places emphasis on equality and inclusiveness. Multiculturalism is frequently cited as one of Canada's significant accomplishments, and a key distinguishing element of Canadian identity.

According to the 2016 Canadian Census, the country's ethnic origin is Canadian (32 percent of the population), English (18.3 percent), Scottish (13.9 percent), French (13.6 percent), Irish (13.4 percent), German (9.6 percent), Chinese (5.1 percent), Italian (4.6 percent), First Nations (4.4 percent), Indian (4.0 percent), and Ukrainian (3.9 percent). There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,525,565 people. The population of Canada in 2019 was 37.59 million people.

Canadians speak numerous languages, with English and French being the official first languages. As of the 2016 Census, approximately 7.3 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their first language, including Chinese, Punjabi, Spanish, Tagalog, Arabic, German, and Italian.

There are 11 sub-species of Canada geese. Many people jokingly say Canada's third official language is goose. Canadian geese have their own language and as many as 13 distinct animal calls.

Canada is religiously diverse. The country has no official church, and the government is committed to religious pluralism. In modern day times freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. The practice of religion is generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state.

According to a 2019 report by the OECD, Canada is one of the most educated countries in the world. The country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with over 56 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree. Canada's literacy rate is over 99 percent.

Healthcare in Canada is delivered through the provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare. It is universal. Canadians often consider universal access to publicly funded health services as a fundamental value that ensures national health care insurance for everyone. However, 30 percent of healthcare is paid for through the private sector. This mostly addresses services not covered or only partially covered by Medicare, such as prescription drugs, dentistry, and optometry.

Approximately 65-75 percent of Canadians have supplementary health insurance, many through employers or through secondary social service programs to extended coverage for families receiving social assistance or vulnerable demographics, such as seniors, minors, and those with disabilities.

Canada's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and Indigenous sources. The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and previous flags, and on the Arms of Canada.

Literature: Canadian literature is often divided into French and English language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain. By the 1990s, Canadian literature was viewed as some of the best in the world. Canada's ethnic and cultural diversity is reflected in its literature, with many of its most prominent modern writers focusing on ethnic life. The best-known living Canadian writer (especially since the deaths of Robertson Davies and Mordecai Richler) is Margaret Atwood, a prolific novelist, poet, and literary critic.

Numerous Canadian authors have accumulated international literary awards; including Nobel Laureate Alice Munro, who has been called the best living writer of short stories in English; and Booker Prize recipient Michael Ondaatje, who is known for the novel The English Patient, which was adapted as a film of the same name that won the Academy Award for Best Picture.

Visual Arts: Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson - the country's most famous painter - and by the Group of Seven. Thomson painted Canadian landscapes for a decade until his death in 1917 at the young age of 39.

The Group of Seven were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five artists - Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley - were responsible for articulating the Group's ideas.

They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the Group in 1926. Associated with the Group was prominent Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for landscapes and portrayals of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Since the 1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the Canadian government.

Music: The Canadian music industry is the sixth largest in the world producing internationally renowned composers, musicians, and ensembles. The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences present Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970.

The Canadian Music Hall of Fame established in 1976 honours Canadian musicians for lifetime achievements. Patriotic music dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the Canadian Confederation by over 50 years. The earliest, The Bold Canadian, was written in 1812. The national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in 1980. Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was only in French before being adapted into English in 1906.

Sports: Organized sports in Canada dates back to the 1770s, culminating in the development and popularization of the major professional games of ice hockey, lacrosse, basketball, baseball, and football. Canada's official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse. Golf, soccer, baseball, tennis, skiing, badminton, volleyball, cycling, swimming, bowling, rugby union, canoeing, equestrian, squash, and the study of martial arts are enjoyed at youth and amateur levels.

Canada shares several major professional sports leagues with the United States. Canadian teams in these leagues include seven franchises in the National Hockey League, three Major League Soccer teams, and one team in each of Major League Baseball and the National Basketball Association. Other professional sports in Canada include Canadian football, which is played in the Canadian Football League, National Lacrosse League lacrosse, and curling.

Canada has participated in almost every Olympic Game since its Olympic debut in 1900, and has hosted several international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the 1988 Winter Olympics, the 1994 Basketball World Championship, the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, the 2010 Winter Olympics, and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. Canada staged the 2015 Pan American Games and 2015 Parapan American Games, the former being the largest sporting event hosted by the country.


Atrocities In Canada

Canada is certainly not the only country that has done horrific things, including horrendous child abuse and cultural genocide of 3,200 to upwards of 6,000 Canadian Native Indians, the genocide of aboriginal peoples, internment of Japanese Canadians, Canada's role in the forced and coerced sterilization of indigenous women, the Inuit relocation, slavery, eugenics, language laws, the Chinese head tax, women's suffrage, and war crimes. We cannot list everything here. Please research for yourself if you want to know more.


In 1910 the government of Canada implemented a new Immigration Act that barred immigrants into Canada from races deemed undesirable and very few Black people entered Canada during the next few decades.


Slaughtering of Marine Mammals: Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals. Personal seal hunting is allowed in ten countries: Canada, the United States, Namibia, Denmark (in self-governing Greenland only), Iceland, Norway, Russia, Finland and Sweden. Most of the world's seal hunting takes place in Canada and Greenland. Commercial sealing is conducted by five nations: Canada, Greenland, Namibia, Norway, and Russia. The United States, which had been heavily involved in the sealing industry, now bans commercial hunting of marine mammals, with the exception of indigenous peoples who are allowed to hunt a small number of seals each year.


Canada's Worse Serial Killer: Robert William "Willie" Pickton (born October 26, 1949) was convicted of six counts of second-degree murder. The remains or DNA of 33 women were found on his property. Twenty other charges were stayed, and six cases never resulted in charges. Pickton was sentenced to life imprisonment with no possibility of a parole for twenty-five years. Pickton was believed to have killed twenty-six women, but he confessed to 49 murders during an undercover investigation. He told an undercover officer who was posing as a cellmate that he wanted to kill one more woman to make it a fifty.


Interesting Things About Canada

Approximately half of the people in Canada were born in other countries.

The U.S. buys more oil from Canada than any other country.

The license plate for cars, motorbikes, and snowmobiles in Nunavut is in the shape of a polar bear. Fifty percent of the world's polar bears live in Nunavut.

Churchill, Manitoba has one of the largest annual polar bear migrations.

Canada is the largest producer of uranium in the world.

Newfoundland is nicknamed "The Rock."

There are diamond mines in the Northwest Territories.

Some of the world's largest wheat fields are found in Saskatchewan.

Canada is the world's largest source of the rare element Cesium. It is found at Bernic Lake, Manitoba.

Canada is home to 15 million cattle.

The June 30, 1912 Regina Tornado is the most severe tornado so far in Canada. It killed 28 people, injured hundreds, and destroyed much of the downtown area. Its winds were 330 to 416 kilometres per hour.

On September 7, 1991 the most expensive Canadian natural catastrophe, a devastating hailstorm, struck Calgary. Insurance companies paid approximately $400 million to repair or replace more than 65,000 cars, 60,000 homes and businesses, and aircraft.

Canada has the world's smallest jail in Rodney, Ontario. It is 24.3 square metres (270 square feet).

There are nearly 2.5 million caribou in Canada.

Canada has approximately 630 bird species and approximately 200 species of mammals.

The Rideau Canal in Ottawa, A UNESCO world heritage site, has the world's longest skating rink in the winter.

Wine is produced in British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Canada is famous for ice wine, made from pressed frozen grapes. It is typically served as a dessert wine.

Cheddar is the most popular cheese in Canada.

The Maritimes are famous for desserts, especially Raspberry Buckle and Blueberry Grunt.

Manitoulin Island is the largest freshwater island in the world.

1876-1877: Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist and inventor best known for inventing the first working telephone in 1876 and founding the Bell Telephone Company in 1877. He wasn't Canadian, but he spent a lot of time between Brantford Ontario, Boston Massachusetts, and Baddeck Nova Scotia. Much of his work was done in Brantford and Baddeck.

1891-1892: James Naismith was a Canadian-American, physical educator, physician, Christian chaplain, sports coach, and innovator. The year he left Canada for Springfield, Massachusetts, at age 31, he invented the game of basketball in the winter of 1891-1892, in a gymnasium at Springfield College (then known as the International YMCA Training School), located in Springfield, Massachusetts. He wrote the original basketball rulebook and founded the University of Kansas basketball program. Naismith lived to see basketball adopted as an Olympic demonstration sport in 1904 and as an official event at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, as well as the birth of the National Invitation Tournament (1938) and the NCAA Tournament (1939).

1892: Thomas Ahearn was a Canadian inventor and businessman. He was instrumental in the success of a vast streetcar system that was once in Ottawa, the Ottawa Electric Railway. He held several patents related to electrical items. Ahearn co-founded the Ottawa Car Company, a manufacturer of streetcars for Canadian markets. In 1892, he filed patents for both an electric oven and a system of warming cars by means of electrically heated water.

1915: John McCrae was a poet and a Canadian Lieutenant-Colonel physician. He developed an interest in poetry at a young age and wrote throughout his life. "In Flanders Fields" is a war poem he wrote during the First World War on May 3, 1915 after presiding over the funeral of a friend and fellow soldier. "In Flanders Fields" was first published on December 8, 1915 in the London magazine Punch. It is one of the most quoted poems from the war. Its reference of red poppies, which grew over the graves of fallen soldiers, resulted in the remembrance poppy becoming one of the most recognized memorial symbols for soldiers who have died in conflict. The poem and poppy are symbols for Remembrance Day throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, particularly in Canada, where "In Flanders Fields" is one of the nation's best-known literary works. The poem is widely known in the United States, where it is associated with Veterans Day and Memorial Day.

1921: Dr. Frederick Banting discovered insulin in 1921 at the University of Toronto. Dr. Frederick Banting, Charles Best, Bertram Collip, and John Mcleod developed insulin further. Banting and Macleod earned a Nobel Prize for their work in 1923.

1925: Canadian inventor, Arthur Sicard invented the snowblower in 1925. A grain thresher inspired Sicard in 1894. He wanted to help local farmers clear snow from fields so cows could feed. He spent 31 years perfecting his snowblower design.

1932-1966: Dr. Elizabeth Catherine Bagshaw was one of Canada's first woman physicians. From 1932 until 1966, Bagshaw was the medical director of Canada's first birth control clinic. She delivered thousands of babies, including one delivered by the light of kerosene lamps from her car. She retired at the age of 95 in 1976, the oldest practicing physician in Canada at the time. She became a centenarian in 1981. She made outstanding contributions to the quality of life for women in Canada.

1937: Joseph-Armand Bombardier was a Canadian inventor and businessman. His most famous invention was the snowmobile, in 1937. He knew a snowmobile was needed in rural settings, having lost his son one winter when his family was unable to transport the sick child to a hospital. Doctors, veterinarians, innkeepers, and funeral directors used his first snowmobiles to get around during snowy winter months. Bombardier went on to design bigger snowmobiles that would carry up to 12 people. During the War, he made snowmobiles and armoured tracked vehicles for the Canadian Government. The Bombardier Glacier is named after him. He is a member of the Canadian Science and Engineering Hall of Fame.

1938: Joseph Shuster was a Canadian-American comic book artist best known for co-creating the DC Comics character Superman, with writer Jerry Siegel. The Daily Planet is based on the Toronto Star and Metropolis was modeled after Toronto. Superman began as one of several anthology features in the National Periodical Publications comic book Action Comics #1 in June 1938.

1961: Till & McCulloch are James Till and Ernest McCulloch. They are credited with the discovery of the stem cell while studying the effect of radiation on the bone marrow of mice at the Ontario Cancer Institute, in Toronto in 1961.

1960s-1970s: Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr, and William C. Shaw were the co-founders of what would be named the IMAX Corporation (founded in September 1967 as Multiscreen Corporation, Limited), and they developed the first IMAX cinema projection standards in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Canada.

1981: Chris Haney was a Canadian journalist. Haney and Scott Abbott co-created one of the most successful board games in history, Trivial Pursuit, trademarked on November 10, 1981. Time magazine has called it "the biggest phenomenon in game history."

The world's largest totem pole was raised in Victoria in 1994 and stands 54.94 metres tall (180.2 feet).

The Royal Montreal Golf Club, founded in 1873, is the oldest golf club in North America.

Whistler, British Columbia is consistently ranked as one of the best places in North America for downhill skiing.

Dog food is tax-deductible in Canada.

Calgary is famous for its Chinooks - a weather phenomenon that raises the temperature by ten degrees in a matter of minutes.

Ocean Falls, British Columbia has approximately 330 days of rain per year.

Estevan, Saskatchewan is considered the sunniest Canadian town. It has approximately 2,540 hours of sunshine per year.

Montreal is the world's second largest French speaking city after Paris.

Canada has six time zones.

The longest highway in the world is the Trans-Canada Highway that is more than 7,600 kilometres (approximately 4,725 miles) in length.

Canada got its own flag on February 15, 1965, almost 100 years after it became a country in 1867.

Many Canadians finish a sentence with, eh. The famous Canadian interjection "eh" is listed in the Canadian Oxford Dictionary as a valid word.

The oldest rock on earth is in The Canadian Shield. Geologists discovered the 4.28 billion-year-old rock in 2001.

The first Hawaiian pizza was created by a Greek man named Sam Panopoulos at the Satellite Restaurant in Chatham, Ontario, Canada in 1962.

Canada produces approximately 80 percent of the world's maple syrup.

The Great Canadian Maple Syrup Heist is a theft that occurred over several months between 2011 and 2012 of nearly 3,000 tons of maple syrup, valued at almost 19 million dollars. The syrup was stolen from a storage facility in Quebec. Police arrested seventeen men associated with the theft.

Canadians consume more macaroni and cheese than any country in the world. They call it Kraft Dinner (KD for short), not Kraft Macaroni & Cheese as in the U.S.

Canada has an ongoing dispute with Denmark. They have allegedly been fighting over an island in the Arctic since the 1930s. The two countries battle with Canadian rye whiskey and Danish schnapps to stake their claim.

Canada uses the British English system. For example, they spell honor and color with a "u" - honour and colour. They spell theater and meter with "re" - theatre and metre. Like the British, they add an extra "L" to words like "travelling."

Canadian banknotes have brail on them for the blind.

Canada's nickel is the smallest-valued coin since the Royal Canadian Mint stopped distributing pennies in 2013. Businesses round prices to the nearest nickel.

Canada sells milk in bags. They even have bagged milk at Costco.

There are more doughnut shops in Canada per capita than any other country.

Per capita, Canadians eat the most doughnuts compared to all world countries. They eat approximately one billion donuts each year.

Canada is not as cold as Antarctica, Russia, and Greenland. But, it can be extremely cold. The lowest recorded temperature in Canada occurred in Snag, Yukon Territories at minus 63C.

Ogopogo is a mythical monster similar to the Loch Ness Monster. Ogopogo allegedly lives in the waters of Lake Okanagan, British Columbia.

More than one country claims that Santa Claus lives in their country. Canadians insist that Santa Claus lives in Canada and the government has declared him a Canadian citizen. His mailing address is Santa Claus, North Pole H0H 0H0, Canada. You can write him a letter in any language and he will respond. Canada's Immigration Minister declared Santa a full Canadian citizen in 2008. Santa and Mrs. Claus were issued Canadian passports in 2013.

Canadians are known for their politeness. Their usage of the word sorry is so frequent that an Apology Act was passed in 2009. According to this act, an apology is inadmissible in court stating that sorry means an expression of sympathy or regret and not an admission of guilt or fault.

Ottawa has an annual tulip festival, with thousands of tulips sent from the Netherlands, as an expression of gratitude. In 1943, Ottawa officially designated a hospital room to be an international ground so a Dutch princess could be born a full Dutch citizen and retain her royal title.

Ophidiophobia means a fear of snakes. Manitoba is known for having the largest concentration of snakes in the world. Approximately 70,000 snakes emerge in Manitoba in May when they come out of hibernation.

A.A. Milne's stories about Winnie-the-Pooh were inspired by a black bear cub from Canada named Winnipeg ("Winnie," for short).

Canada is the largest exporter of green lentils in the world, accounting for more than 80 percent of global exports.

Canada has no weapons of mass destruction since 1984 and has signed treaties repudiating their possession.

There is much more about Canada. Please research further on your own, if you wish to learn more.